Navigation

Jump to main content
International Relations
Publications

Publications

Kai Oppermann: Foreign Policy as Public Policy? Promise and Pitfalls, Manchester, Manchester University Press, forthcoming (Co-edited with Klaus Brummer, Sebastian Harnisch and Diana Panke).

This book examines how foreign policy analysis can be enriched by 'domestic realm' public policy approaches, concepts and theories. Starting out from the observation that foreign policy has in many ways become more similar to (and intertwined with) 'domestic' public policies, it bridges the divide that still persists between the two fields. The book includes chapters by leading experts in their fields on arguably the most important public policy approaches, including, for example, multiple streams, advocacy coalition, punctuated equilibrium and veto player approaches. The chapters explore how the approaches can be adapted and transferred to the study of foreign policy and point to the challenges this entails. By establishing a critical dialogue between approaches in public policy and research on foreign policy, the main contribution of the book is to broaden the available theoretical 'toolkit' in foreign policy analysis.

Kai Oppermann: Außenpolitikanalyse, 2. Aufl., München: Oldenbourg, 2018 (Co-authored with Klaus Brummer).

Die um zwei Kapitel erweiterte Neuauflage diskutiert 12 Theorien der Außenpolitikforschung, die in drei Abschnitte untergliedert sind. Der erste Teil widmet sich den Großtheorien der Internationalen Beziehungen und arbeitet heraus, in welcher Art und Weise diese für die Analyse von Außenpolitik fruchtbar gemacht werden können. Der zweite Block diskutiert Erklärungsansätze, die außenpolitische Entscheidungen auf innenpolitische Einflüsse und Zwänge zurückführen. Die im dritten Abschnitt des Bandes behandelten Theorien richten ihren Fokus auf psychologische und kognitive Erklärungsfaktoren auf der Ebene individueller außenpolitischer Entscheidungsträger. Der Band gibt damit den aktuellen Stand der Theorieentwicklung in der Disziplin der Außenpolitikforschung wieder.

Political Mistakes and Policy Failures in International Relations, Palgrave: Basingstoke, 2018 (Co-edited with Andreas Kruck and Alexander Spencer).

This edited volume analyzes mistakes in different areas of international relations including the realms of security, foreign policy, finance, health, development, environmental policy and migration. By starting out from a broad concept of mistakes as “something [considered to have] gone wrong” the edited volume enables comparisons of various kinds of mistakes from a range of analytical perspectives, including objectivist and interpretivist approaches, in order to draw out answers to the following guiding questions: How does one identify and research a mistake? Why do mistakes happen? How are actors made responsible? When and how do actors learn from mistakes?

Kai Oppermann: Fiascos in Public Policy and Foreign Policy, Journal of European Public Policy, Special Issue, 23 (5) (2016) (Co-edited with Alexander Spencer).

The collection brings together scholars from Public Policy and Foreign Policy to address the theme of policy fiascos. So far research on failure and fiascos in both Public Policy and Foreign Policy has existed independent of each other with very little communication between the two sub-disciplines. The contributions aim to bridge this divide and bring the two sides into a dialogue on some of the central issues in the study of fiascos including how to define, identify and measure policy failure (and success); the social and political contestation about what counts as policy fiascos; the causes of policy fiascos and their consequences; the attribution of blame; as well as processes of learning from fiascos. A common theme of the collection is to explore different epistemological and methodological approaches to studying policy fiascos.

 

Wolfram Hilz/Antje Nötzold (Hrsg.): Die Zukunft Europas in einer Welt im Umbruch. Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Beate Neuss, Wiesbaden 2018.

In dieser Festschrift stehen die drei großen Forschungsfelder von Beate Neuss im Mittelpunkt: Europäische Integration, transatlantische Beziehungen und aktuelle Sicherheitsherausforderungen. Die Autorinnen und Autoren des Sammelbandes, Praktiker und Wissenschaftler unterschiedlicher Disziplinen, analysieren Aspekte, die angesichts der aktuellen Entwicklungen innerhalb der Europäischen Union, an ihrer Peripherie und im transatlantischen Verhältnis im wissenschaftlichen und öffentlichen Diskurs hochaktuell sind. Neben den Herausforderungen für die deutsche Politik und die europäische Ebene werden auch die Wechselwirkungen in der EU, zwischen den transatlantischen Partnern und bei spezifischen Sicherheitsherausforderungen beleuchtet. Darüber hinaus werden aktuelle Veränderungen in Deutschland und dessen sich verändernde Rolle in Europa und der Welt angesprochen.

 

Beate Neuss/Antje Nötzold (Hrsg.): Türkei - Schlüsselakteur für die EU? Eine schwierige Partnerschaft in turbulenten Zeiten, Baden-Baden 2018.

Der Tagungsband zur internationalen und interdisziplinären Konferenz vom Mai 2017 analysiert den Stand und die Perspektiven der türkisch-europäischen Beziehungen aus dem Blickwinkel beider Akteure. Neben dem Stand des EU-Beitrittsprozesses des Landes sowie der innenpolitischen Entwicklungen in der Türkei seit dem Putschversuch vom Juli 2016 werden mit dem Flüchtlingsabkommen, der Kooperation mit Ankara in EU und NATO sowie dem deutsch-türkischen Verhältnis prägende Aspekte der Beziehungen en détail betrachtet. Darüber hinaus bietet der Band eine Untersuchung der türkischen Politik im Hinblick auf regionale sicherheitspolitische Herausforderungen wie die Kurdenproblematik und den Syrien-Konflikt. Neben deutschen Türkei-Experten und Autoren, die lange in der Türkei gelebt haben, tragen auch türkische Autoren zu einer umfassenden Analyse der EU-Türkei-Beziehungen im aktuellen Kontext bei.

Beate Neuss/Antje Nötzold (eds.): The Southern Mediterranean. Challenges to the European Foreign and Security Policy, Baden-Baden 2015.

Der Tagungsband zur internationalen und interdisziplinären Konferenz 2014 analysiert mit Blick auf die Umbrüche in den Ländern des südlichen Mittelmeers die Herausforderungen der Europäischen Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik. Neben einer Bilanz der Europäischen Nachbarschaftspolitik und der Erfahrungen des Europäischen Auswärtigen Diensts in den Ländern der südlichen Peripherie werden die sozio-ökonomischen und sozialen Dynamiken sowie die Bedeutung gesellschaftlicher Akteure, insbesondere islamistischer Gruppen für die Entwicklungen der Region und die EU Politik untersucht. Darüber hinaus integriert der Band die Perspektiven der Türkei und Israels auf die Entwicklungen in der Region.

Beate Neuss / Hildigund Neubert (Hrsg.)
Mut zur Verantwortung. Frauen gestalten die Politik der CDU

Anfangs noch reduziert auf Frauen- und Familienpolitik und nicht selten kritisch beäugt von männlichen Weggefährten, mussten sich Christ­liche Demokratinnen ihren Platz in der CDU erobern und manche Hürden überwinden. In bisher nicht dagewesener Breite und Tiefe berichten sie in diesem Buch über Wege zur Durchsetzung ihrer Ideen und Vorhaben. Jede dieser Frauen hat ihren eigenen Weg eingeschlagen und beschritten. Sie sind Mandatsträger­innen auf Kreis-, Landes-, Bundes- und Europaebene, Parlamentspräsiden­­tinnen, Ministerpräsidentinnen, Ministerinnen und Staatssekretärinnen. Ihre Erzählungen sind einzigartig und nicht vergleichbar. Mit kluger und vorausschauender Politik haben sie sich Ansehen und Respekt erworben und so die CDU von heute geprägt und gestaltet. Daraus ergibt sich eine beeindruckende Bilanz erfolgreicher christdemokratischer Politik, die motiviert, politische Verantwortung zu übernehmen.

Beate Neuss / Antje Nötzold (Hrsg.)
Polen als Motor des europäischen Integrationsprozesses.
Bilanz der polnischen Ratspräsidentschaft

Mit Polen hatte erstmals ein mittelgroßes neues Mitglied die EU-Ratspräsidentschaft inne. Der interdisziplinäre Band bilanziert diese aus deutscher und polnischer Perspektive. Neben einer Bestandsaufnahme der jüngsten europapolitischen Entwicklungen in zentralen Politikfeldern resümiert er Entwicklungsperspektiven einer sich vertiefenden und erweiternden EU.

Beate Neuss / Werner Holly (Hrsg.)
Sprache und Politik im vereinten Europa

Das Thema Sprache und Politik bietet viele Facetten und ist eng mit der Integration Europas verbunden ist. Sprache prägt Auffassungen und spiegelt sie. Sie ist im wissenschaftlich positiven Sinne verräterisch, weil sie Wahrnehmungen erkennen lässt, die verborgen bleiben wollen, weil an ihren Begriffen und Wörtern Einstellungen und Werte ablesbar sind. Sprache wird in der Politik instrumentalisiert, um Ziele zu erreichen im Guten wie im Bösen. So lässt sich das Zusammenwachsen Europas und der Grenzregionen bzw. die Hemmnisse dafür an der Nutzung der Sprache im politischen wie im außerpolitischen Bereich ablesen. Die vorliegende Publikation macht die Ergebnisse einer Fachtagung einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich.

Antje Nötzold
Die Energiepolitik der EU und der VR China.

Mit Blick auf den europäischen Importbedarf für Erdöl und -gas richtet sich das Augenmerk in den letzten Jahren verstärkt auf den rasant ansteigenden Energiebedarf der Volksrepublik China.
Aufbauend auf einer Darstellung der Ausgangslage und Potenziale fossiler und alternativer Energieträger bietet das Buch eine vergleichende Wirkungsanalyse der chinesischen und europäischen Energiepolitik im Hinblick auf die Energieversorgungssicherheit. Dabei wird die Energiepolitik Chinas und der EU einer umfassenden Betrachtung unterzogen. Darüber hinaus analysiert die Autorin die Auswirkungen für die europäische Energieversorgungssicherheit und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen für den Umgang mit China und für die Verbesserung der gemeinsamen europäischen Energiepolitik.

Kai Oppermann: The Party Politics of Learning from Failure: The German Greens and the Lessons Drawn from the 2013 General Election (Co-authored with Alexander Bürgin), in: Environmental Politics, Online First (2020), Doi: 10.1080/09644016.2020.1741769.

Exploring the party political learning of the German Greens, a powerful agent of environmental policy in European politics, we identify the strategic and programmatic lessons learned from their failure in the 2013 general elections and explain the party politics that facilitated these lessons. We advance research on learning from failures by understanding failures not as objective facts but as constructed in political discourse. Tracing the main discursive elements of failure constructions, we argue that such constructions empower agents of learning and direct what actors learn from failures. Party elites might engage in strategic constructions of failures to promote their agenda and position in the party. Empirically tracing how the party political discourse of the German Greens constructed the 2013 elections as a failure, we demonstrate how this discursive construction intertwines with party politics and helped shift the intra-party balance of power and political direction of the Greens.

Kai Oppermann: German Foreign Policy in a New Era (Co-authored with Jamie Gaskarth), in: International Studies Perspectives, Online First (2019), Doi: 10.1093/isp/ekz017.

A series of crises over the last decade have put pressure on Europe's fundamental ordering principles. In response, German policymakers have scrambled to reinterpret Germany's foreign policy for a new era. To understand this process, the authors utilize an interpretivist approach, analyzing the discourse of German foreign policymakers through the lens of four traditions of thought informing debates: regionalism, pacifism, realism, and hegemonism. The article suggests that despite serious challenges, prevailing patterns of belief centered round regionalism and pacifism, supported by a particular civilian understanding of hegemony, persist. Yet, Germany's allies are challenging this framework and calling for it to accept more responsibility for regional and global security. As a result, a realist tradition is reemerging in Germany's discourse. The taxonomy provided here allows a richer understanding of these debates as well as an appreciation of how policymakers mobilize ideas to resist or enable policy change.

Kai Oppermann: Narrative Genres of Brexit: The Leave Campaign and the Success of Romance (Co-authored with Alexander Spencer), in: Journal of European Public Policy, Online First (2019), Doi: 10.1080/13501763.2019.1662828.

This article argues that the Leave narrative was successful in the 2016 referendum in part because it conformed to one of the well-established narrative genres of tragedy, comedy, satire and romance. These genres are story telling conventions that orientate audiences and guide the interpretation of the story being told. Specifically, the article shows that the Leave campaign constructed a largely consistent romantic narrative, while the Remain campaign mixed narrative genres. This difference in ‘genre consistency’ contributed to the success of Leave and the failure of Remain in the referendum. The investigation into the role of genre consistency adds to theoretical scholarship on narrative dominance in political discourse which has so far focused on the narrator, the structure and content of the story or the audience. The analysis points to structural similarities between the romantic genre and populist narratives more generally which enables populism to tap into the power of romance.

Kai Oppermann: British Foreign Policy after Brexit: Losing Europe and Finding a Role (Co-authored with Ryan Beasley and Juliet Kaarbo), in: International Relations, Online First (2019), Doi: 10.1177/0047117819864421.

British foreign policy stands at a turning point following the 2016 ‘Brexit’ referendum. Drawing on role theory, we trace the United Kingdom’s efforts to establish new foreign policy roles as it interacts with the concerned international actors. We find that the pro-Brexit desire to ‘take back control’ has not yet translated into a cogent foreign policy direction. In its efforts to avoid adopting the role of isolate, the United Kingdom has projected a disoriented foreign policy containing elements of partially incompatible roles such as great power, global trading state, leader of the Commonwealth, regional partner to the European Union (EU) and faithful ally to the United States. The international community has, through processes of socialisation and alter-casting, largely rejected these efforts. These role conflicts between the United Kingdom and international actors, as well as conflicts among its different role aspirations, have pressed UK policies towards its unwanted isolationist role, potentially shaping its long-term foreign policy orientation post-Brexit.

Kullik, Jakob (2019): Unter dem Radar: Die strategische Bedeutung Seltener Erden für die wirtschaftliche und militärische Sicherheit des Westens, Arbeitspapier 13/2019, Bundesakademie für Sicherheitspolitik.

Seltene Erden sind Rohstoffe von strategischer Bedeutung für die wirtschaftliche und militärische Sicherheit des Westens. In zahlreichen zivilen und militärischen Technologien sind sie unentbehrlich. Weltweit größter Produzent von Seltenen Erden ist die Volksrepublik China, was ein erhebliches Risiko für die Versorgungssicherheit des Westens darstellt. Viel zu lange blieb dieses Problem unter dem Radar der politischen Entscheidungsträger und wurde nicht angegangen. Dieses Arbeitspapier zeigt die Risiken des chinesischen Monopols bei Seltenen Erden auf und diskutiert mögliche Lösungsschritte.

Antje Nötzold: Vom "ring of friends" zum "ring of fire". Die Europäische Union und ihre Nachbarn, in: Die Politische Meinung, Jg. 64, Heft 554 (Februar 2019), S. 93-97.

Die Europäische Union (EU) hat als Friedensprojekt und aufgrund ihres wirtschaftlichen Erfolgs nach dem Zusammenbruch des sowjetisch beherrschten Ostblocks eine enorme Attraktivität für die ihre Nachbarstaaten entwickelt. Für die EU war eine erfolgreiche Transformation ihrer osteuropäischen Nachbarn nach ihrem Vorbild von zentralem Interesse. Im Rahmen der Beitrittsprozesse konnte sie einen beachtlichen Einfluss auf die innenpolitischen Reformen ausüben und Stabilität in ihrer östlichen Nachbarschaft sichern. Anfang der 2000er-Jahre war jedoch klar, dass die Stabilisierungs- und Gestaltungspolitik der Europäischen Union nicht weiter maßgeblich über den Assoziierungsprozess im Zuge eines Beitritts erfolgen konnte. Die große Erweiterungsrunde von 2004, im Rahmen derer zehn Staaten beitraten, die anstehenden Beitritte Bulgariens und Rumäniens sowie die versprochene Beitrittsperspektive für die Staaten des Westbalkans veränderten die EU-Außengrenze und damit die Herausforderungen in der neuen Nachbarschaft gravierend...

Kai Oppermann: Poliheuristic Theory and Germany`s (Non-)Participation in Multinational Military Interventions. The Non-compensatory Principle, Coaltion Politics and Political Survival (Co-authored with Klaus Brummer), in: German Politics, (2019), Doi: 10.1080/09644008.2019.1568992.

This article employs the poliheuristic theory of decision-making (PHT) to analyse German decisions to participate in, or abstain from, multinational military operations. PHT represents one of the leading theoretical efforts at bridging the cognitive-rationalist divide in foreign policy analysis. The theory posits a two-stage model of foreign policy-making: in the first stage, actors rely on a non-compensatory strategy as a cognitive shortcut to eliminate unacceptable alternatives and to reduce the choice set. In the second stage, actors switch to a compensatory mode of information-processing and select the alternative which maximises expected utility. While there is broad agreement that the non-compensatory dimension at the first stage of PHT concerns the domestic repercussions of foreign policy, it is less clear how this ‘domestic politics’ dimension should be operationalised. This article contributes to this debate by specifying the operationalisation of the non-compenstaory principle in the context of coalition foreign policy making in parliamentary democracies. Specifically, it suggests that the non-compensatory dimension in coalition foreign policy consists of the expected impact of foreign policy on coalition survival. Empirically, the article argues that PHT sheds important new light on arguably some of the most controversial military deployment decisions (Democratic Republic of Congo, Lebanon, Libya) of post-unification Germany.

Kai Oppermann: The Ontological Security of Special Relationships: The Case of Germany’s Relations with Israel (Co-authored with Mischa Hansel), in: European Journal of International Security, Online First (2018), https://doi.org/10.1017/eis.2018.18.

This article suggests studying special relationships in international politics from an ontological security perspective. It argues that conceptualising the partners to special relationships as ontological security-seekers provides a promising theoretical angle to address gaps in our understanding of three important dimensions of such relations: their emergence and stability; the processes and practices of maintaining them; and the power relations within special relations. The article illustrates its theoretical argument in a case study on the German-Israeli relationship. The close partnership between the two countries that has developed since the Holocaust ranks as one of the most remarkable examples of special relationships in the international arena. We argue that foregrounding the ontological security which the special relationship provides in particular for Germany sheds important new light on how German-Israeli relations have developed. Specifically, we hold that Germany’s ontological security needs already were an important driver in establishing the relationship and have been a key stabiliser of it ever since; that the ontological security perspective can make sense of three interrelated practices of maintaining the ‘specialness’ of the relationship; and that the asymmetries between the ontological security needs of the two partners help account for Israel’s political leverage in the relationship.

Kai Oppermann: Who Gets What in Foreign Affairs? Explaining the Allocation of Foreign Ministries in Coalition Governments (Co-authored with Klaus Brummer), in: Government and Opposition, Online First (2018), Doi: 10.1017/gov.2018.19.

In coalition governments, political parties are concerned not only with how many but also with which departments they control. The foreign ministry is among the most highly considered prizes in coalition negotiations. This article develops hypotheses to explain under which conditions the foreign ministry is likely to be allocated to a ‘junior coalition partner’. The factors that are hypothesized to affect the allocation are: the relative size of coalition parties; the proximity of their foreign policy positions; the party family of the junior coalition party; the salience of foreign policy to the coalition parties; and past allocations of the foreign ministry to junior coalition partners. Employing a crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis, the article demonstrates that although the conjunction of the junior partner being relatively large and it having led the foreign ministry in the past is not sufficient by itself, those two factors are very influential in the junior partner being allocated the foreign ministry.

Kai Oppermann: Between a Rock and a Hard Place? Navigating Domestic and International Expectations on German Foreign Policy, in German Politics, Online First (2018), Doi: 10.1080/09644008.2018.1481208

This article takes stock of German foreign policy during Angela Merkel's third term in office (2013–17). It argues that the longer-term significance of Germany's foreign policy during this period is twofold. First, the Merkel government was confronted with multiple European and international crises which worked as a magnifying glass for the growing international expectations on Germany to become more actively engaged on the international stage. Second, the tenure of the Grand Coalition saw a significant shift in the German domestic foreign policy discourse that was marked by a concerted effort of leading decision-makers to make the case for Germany to accept greater international responsibilities. This emerging consensus among foreign policy elites expresses a changed self-conception of German foreign policy which, however, continues to be viewed with scepticism in the broader public. Informed by such a broad two-level perspective that focuses on the interplay between international and domestic expectations on German foreign policy, the article explores the record of the Grand Coalition in the main international crises it had to engage with. It suggests that the Merkel government was better able to live up to its own aspirations in two-level contexts which left it with greater domestic room for manoeuvre.

Kai Oppermann: Narrating Success and Failure: Congressional Debates on the ‘Iran Nuclear Deal’ (Co-authored with Alexander Spencer), in: European Journal of International Relations, 24 (2) (2018), 268-292.

This article applies a method of narrative analysis to investigate the discursive contestation over the ‘Iran nuclear deal’ in the US. Specifically, it explores the struggle in the US Congress between narratives constituting the deal as a US foreign policy success or failure. The article argues that foreign policy successes and failures are socially constructed through narratives and suggests how narrative analysis as a discourse-analytical method can be employed to trace discursive contests about such constructions. Based on insights from literary studies and narratology, it shows that stories of failures and successes follow similar structures and include a number of key elements, including: a particular setting; a negative/positive characterization of individual and collective decision-makers; and an emplotment of success or failure through the attribution of credit/blame and responsibility. The article foregrounds the importance of how stories are told as an explanation for the dominance or marginality of narratives in political discourse.

Kai Oppermann: Coalition Governance and Foreign Policy Decision Making (Co-authored with Klaus Brummer and Niels van Willigen), in: European Political Science, 16 (4) (2017), 489-501, Doi: 10.1057/s41304-016-0064-9.

Multi-party coalitions are an increasingly common type of government across different political regimes and world regions. Since they are the locus of national foreign-policy-making, the dynamics of coalition government have significant implications for International Relations. Despite this growing significance, the foreign-policy-making of coalition governments is only partly understood. This symposium advances the study of coalition foreign policy in three closely related ways. First, it brings together in one place the state of the art in research on coalition foreign policy. Second, the symposium pushes the boundaries of our knowledge on four dimensions that are key to a comprehensive research agenda on coalition foreign policy: the foreign-policy outputs of multi-party coalitions; the process of foreign-policy-making in different types of coalitions; coalition foreign policy in the ‘Global South’; and coalition dynamics in non-democratic settings. Finally, the symposium puts forward promising avenues for further research by emphasising, for instance, the value of theory-guided comparative research that employs multi-method strategies and transcends the space of Western European parliamentary democracies.

Kai Oppermann: Telling Stories of Failure: Narrative Constructions of Foreign Policy Fiascos (co-authored with Alexander Spencer), in: Journal of European Public Policy, 23 (5) (2016), 685-701, Doi: 10.1080/13501763.2015.1127272.

The contribution introduces narrative analysis as a discourse analytical method for investigating the social construction of foreign policy fiascos. Based on insights from literary studies and narratology it shows that stories of failure include a number of key elements, including a particular setting which defines appropriate behaviour; the negative characterization of agents; as well as an emplotment of the ‘fiasco’ through the attribution of cause and responsibility. The contribution illustrates this method through a narrative analysis of German media reporting on Germany's abstention in the United Nations Security Council vote on Resolution 1973 in March 2011 regarding the military intervention in Libya.

Kai Oppermann: Counterfactual Reasoning in Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of German Non-participation in the Libya Intervention of 2011 (Co-authored with Mischa Hansel), in: Foreign Policy Analysis, 12 (2) (2016), 109-127, Doi: 10.1111/fpa.12054.

The abstention of the conservative-liberal government under Chancellor Angela Merkel on UN Security Council resolution 1973 marked the first occasion in which the Federal Republic of Germany stood against all three of its main Western partners, the US, France, and the UK, simultaneously, on a major foreign policy issue. Many accounts of this decision invoke the influence of electoral incentives. What is problematic, however, is that the causal weight attached to electoral politics is often left ambiguous and difficult to assess with traditional case study methods. The article, therefore, employs counterfactual reasoning to scrutinize “electoral politics” explanations of Germany's policy on Libya. Specifically, it develops counterfactuals in which decision making did not take place in the shadow of upcoming elections and investigates how other variables on different levels of analysis would have shaped decision making in the counterfactual scenarios. The findings suggest that electoral incentives did not decisively shift German foreign policy on Libya. More generally, the article speaks to the value of counterfactuals in foreign policy analysis.