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Robotik und Mensch-Technik-Interaktion
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Publikationen

Im folgenden sind unsere Veröffentlichungen, dem Jahr entsprechend, aufgelistet.

2018

F. Müller, J. Janetzky, U. Bernd, J. Jäkel, U. Thomas
User Force-Dependant Variable Impedance Control in Human-Robot-Interaktion
accepted for IEEE International Conference on Automation, Science and Engineering, Munich, Germany, March 2018

In this paper a novel type of variable impedance control (VIC) is presented. The controller adjusts the impedance depending on the force input of the user. In this way it is easy to accelerate and decelerate. Additionally, for high velocity the damping decreases and vice versa. This approach could be interpreted as a combination of acceleration-dependent VIC and velocity-dependent VIC. To guarantee stability, a stability observer is introduced. The observer is based on a model which describes a combined passive and active behavior of the user. In addition, we present a user study with 45 participants where the differences between VIC, VIC with stability observer and a pure admittance controller were investigated. The results show an improvement of the VIC with stability observer in relation to the pure admittance controller among different categories. With both the variable impedance controller and the variable impedance controller with stability observer, the participants significantly improved their times in comparison to the pure admittance controller, while they maintained the same level of precision. Also the workload was considerably smaller and the user comfort increased with both controllers compared to the usage of the pure admittance controller.

@INPROCEEDINGS{MuellerJanetzky2018a, author={M{\"u}ller, F. and Janetzky, J. and Behrnd, U. and J{\"a}kel, J. and Thomas, U.}, booktitle={ accepted at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)}, title={User Force-Depending Variable Impedance Control on Human-Robot Interaction}, year={2018}, month={Aug.}}


C.M. Costa, G. Veiga, A. Sousa, L. Rocha, U. Thomas
Automatic Planning of Disassembly Sequences 3D Geometric Reasoning with Information Extraction from Natural Language Instruction Manuals
submitted Journal Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 2018

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Y. Ding, H. Zhang, U. Thomas
Capacitive Proximity Sensor Skin for Contactless Material Detection
accepted for IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, Madrid, Spain 2018

In this paper, we present a method for contactless material detection with capacitive proximity sensing skins. The described sensor element measures proximity with a capacitance based sensor and absolute distance based on time-of-flight (ToF). Attached on a robot, we gain information about the robot’s near field environment. Our new approach extends the current proximity and distance sensing methods and measures the characteristic impedance spectrum of an object to obtain material properties. By this, we gain further material information besides of the near field information in a contactless and non-destructive way. The information is important not only for human-machine-interaction, but also for grasping and manipulation. We evaluate our method with measurements of numerous different materials and present a solution to differentiate between them.

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A. C. Perzylo, B. Kahl, M. Rickert, N. Somani, Ch. Lehman, A. Kuss, S. Profanier, A. B. Beck, M. Haage, M. A. Roa, O. Sornmo, S. Gestegard Robertz, U. Thomas, G. Veiga, E. A. Topp, I. Kessler, M. Ganzer
SMErobotics - Smart Robots for Flexible Manufacturing
Submitted IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Feb. 2018

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H. Kisner, U. Thomas
Efficient Object Pose Estimation in 3D Point Clouds using Sparse Hash-Maps and Point-Pair Features

50th International Symposium on Robotics (ISR 2018), Munich, Germany

This paper presents an image processing pipeline for object pose estimation (3D translation and rotation) in 3D point clouds. In comparison to the state of the art algorithms, the presented approach uses sparse hash-maps in order to reduce the number of hypotheses and the computational costs as early as possible. The image processing pipeline first starts with spectral clustering to estimate object clusters. Then the sparse hash-maps from point-pair features are used to generate hypotheses for each object. After that, each hypothesis is evaluated by considering the visual appearance (shape and colour) with a quality function which returns a comparable confidence value for every hypotheses. The pipeline is able to detect partially occluded and fully visible objects. The proposed approach is evaluated with online available 3D datasets.

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T. Ebinger, S. Kaden, S. Thomas, R. Andre, N. Amato, U. Thomas
A General and Flexible Search Framework for Disassembly Planning
accepted for IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Brisbane, Australia, 2018

In this paper we present a new general framework for disassembly sequence planning. This framework is a flexible method for the complete disassembly of an object; versatile in its nature allowing different types of search schemes (exhaustive vs. preemptive), various part separation techniques, and the ability to group parts, or not, into subassemblies to improve the solution efficiency and parallelism. This gives the new ability to approach the disassembly sequence planning problem in a truly hierarchical way. We demonstrate two different search strategies using the framework that can either yield a single solution quickly or provide a spectrum of solutions from which an optimal may be selected. We also develop a method for subassembly identification based on collision information. Our results show improved performance over an iterative motion planning based method for finding a single solution and greater functionality through hierarchical planning and optimal solution search.

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C. Costa, G. Veiga, A. Sousa, L. Rocha, E Oliveira, H. Cardoso, U. Thomas
Automatic Generation of Disassembly Sequences and Exploded Views form SolidWorks Symbolic Geometric Relationships
accepted for ICARSC -2018, Portugal, 2018
DOI: 10.1109/ICARSC.2018.8374185

Planning the optimal assembly and disassembly sequence plays a critical role when optimizing the production, maintenance and recycling of products. For tackling this problem, a recursive branch-and-bound algorithm was developed for finding the optimal disassembly plan. It takes into consideration the traveling distance of a robotic end effector along with a cost penalty when it needs to be changed. The precedences and part decoupling directions are automatically computed in the proposed geometric reasoning engine by analyzing the spatial relationships present in SolidWorks assemblies. For accelerating the optimization process, a best-first search algorithm was implemented for quickly finding an initial disassembly sequence solution that is used as an upper bound for pruning most of the non-optimal tree branches. For speeding up the search further, a caching technique was developed for reusing feasible disassembly operations computed on previous search steps, reducing the computational time by more than 18%. As a final stage, our SolidWorks add-in generates an exploded view animation for allowing intuitive analysis of the best solution found. For testing our approach, the disassembly of two starter motors and a single cylinder engine was performed for assessing the capabilities and time requirements of our algorithms.

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H. Kisner, U. Thomas
Segmentation of 3D Point Clouds Using a New Spectral Clustering Algorithm Without a-Priori Knowledge
In 13th International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications, Madeira, Portugal 27-29 January, 2018

For many applications like pose estimation it is important to obtain good segmentation results as a preprocessing step. Spectral clustering is an efficient method to achieve high quality results without a priori knowledge about the scene. Among other methods, it is either the k-means based spectral clustering approach or the bi-spectral clustering approach, which are suitable for 3D point clouds. In this paper, a new method is introduced and the results are compared to these well-known spectral clustering algorithms. When implementing the spectral clustering methods key issues are: how to define similarity, how to build the graph Laplacian and how to choose the number of clusters without any or less a-priori knowledge. The suggested spectral clustering approach is described and evaluated with 3D point clouds. The advantage of this approach is that no a-priori knowledge about the number of clusters is necessary and not even the number of clusters or the number of objects need to be known. With this approach high quality segmentation results are achieved.

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F. Müller, J. Jäkel,U. Thomas, J. Suchý
Stability of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems Describing Human-Robot Interaction
submitted for IEEE Transaction on Mechatronics, Jan, 2018

This paper introduces an improvement of the assisting force field (AFF) concept for hand-guiding of robotic arms. The AFF guides the user to several reference paths previously learned from experienced users. The AFF concept is extended to anthropomorphic redundant robots, which are used to obtain more flexibility. The redundancy of the robot is used for collision avoidance with the robot's elbow. The motion for collision avoidance should have a low influence on position and orientation of the end effector. A corresponding algorithm is proposed. Using AFF, a force-field-dependent variable impedance controller (FF-VIC) is developed for reducing the settling time and improving the user comfort. For investigating these proposed developments a simulation study was performed in which user comfort and control performance were evaluated. Analyzing the simulation results, a suitable parametrization for the FF-VIC can be found which improves user comfort and settling time. Finally, the results were experimentally validated and the functionality of the collision avoidance is shown.

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Y. Ding, R. Andre, J. Bonse, U. Thomas
In-hand grasp pose estimation using particle filters in combination with haptic rendering models
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, Jan, 2018
DOI: 10.1142/S0219843618500020

Specialized grippers used in the industry are often restricted to specific tasks and objects. However, with the development of dexterous grippers, such as humanoid hands, in-hand pose estimation becomes crucial for successful manipulations, since objects will change their pose during and after the grasping process. In this paper, we present a gripping system and describe a new pose estimation algorithm based on tactile sensory information in combination with haptic rendering models (HRMs). We use a 3-finger manipulator equipped with tactile force sensing elements. A particle filter processes the tactile measurements from these sensor elements to estimate the grasp pose of an object. The algorithm evaluates hypotheses of grasp poses by comparing tactile measurements and expected tactile information from CAD-based haptic renderings, where distance values between the sensor and 3D-model are converted to forces. Our approach compares the force distribution instead of absolute forces or distance values of each taxel. The haptic rendering models of the objects allow us to estimate the pose of soft deformable objects. In comparison to mesh-based approaches, our algorithm reduces the calculation complexity and recognizes ambiguous and geometrically impossible solutions.

@article{doi:10.1142/S0219843618500020, author = {Ding, Yitao and Bonse, Julian and Andre, Robert and Thomas, Ulrike}, title = {In-Hand Grasping Pose Estimation Using Particle Filters in Combination with Haptic Rendering Models}, journal = {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics}, volume = {15}, number = {01}, pages = {1850002}, year = {2018}, doi = {10.1142/S0219843618500020}, URL = {https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219843618500020}, eprint = {https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/S0219843618500020} }


2017

U.Thomas, R. Andre, O. Lorenz
Kooperierender Autonomer Roboter in der Montage
Herbstkonferenz Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaften e.V., Chemnitz, 2017

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F. Müller, F. Weiske, J. Jäkel, U. Thomas, J. Suchý
Human-Robot Interaction with Redundant Robots Using Force-Field-Dependent Variable Impedance Control
in proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors, Ottawa, Canada, S. 166-172, 2017, Finalist for Best Paper Award
DOI: 10.1109/IRIS.2017.8250116

This paper introduces an improvement of the assisting force field (AFF) concept for hand-guiding of robotic arms. The AFF guides the user to several reference paths previously learned from experienced users. The AFF concept is extended to anthropomorphic redundant robots, which are used to obtain more flexibility. The redundancy of the robot is used for collision avoidance with the robot's elbow. The motion for collision avoidance should have a low influence on position and orientation of the end effector. A corresponding algorithm is proposed. Using AFF, a force-field-dependent variable impedance controller (FF-VIC) is developed for reducing the settling time and improving the user comfort. For investigating these proposed developments a simulation study was performed in which user comfort and control performance were evaluated. Analyzing the simulation results, a suitable parametrization for the FF-VIC can be found which improves user comfort and settling time. Finally, the results were experimentally validated and the functionality of the collision avoidance is shown.

@INPROCEEDINGS{MuellerJaekel2017b, author={M{\"u}ller, F. and Weiske, F. and J{\"a}kel, J. and Thomas, U. and Such{\'y}, J.}, booktitle={5th IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS), Ottawa}, title={Human-Robot Interaction with Redundant Robots Using Force-Field-Dependent Variable Impedance}, year={2017}, pages ={166 -- 172}, month={Oktober}}


C. Nissler, Z.-C. Marton, H. Kisner, R. Triebel, U. Thomas
A method for hand-eye and camera-camera calibration in case of limited fields of view
in proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vancouver, Canada, 2017

In classical robot-camera calibration, a 6D transformation between the camera frame and the local frame of a robot is estimated by first observing a known calibration object from a number of different view points and then finding transformation parameters that minimize the reprojection error. The disadvantage with this is that often not all configurations can be reached by the end-effector, which leads to an inaccurate parameter estimation. Therefore, we propose a more versatile method based on the detection of oriented visual features, in our case AprilTags. From a collected number of such detections during a defined rotation of a joint, we fit a Bingham distribution by maximizing the observation likelihood of the detected orientations. After a tilt and a second rotation, a camera-to-joint transformation can be determined. In experiments with accurate ground truth available, we evaluate our approach in terms of precision and robustness, both for hand-eye/robot-camera and for cameracamera calibration, with classical solutions serving as a baseline.

@INPROCEEDINGS{8206478, author={C. Nissler and Z. C. Márton and H. Kisner and U. Thomas and R. Triebel}, booktitle={2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)}, title={A method for hand-eye and camera-to-camera calibration for limited fields of view}, year={2017}, volume={}, number={}, pages={5868-5873}, keywords={calibration;cameras;end effectors;parameter estimation;robot vision;camera frame;camera-to-camera calibration;camera-to-joint transformation;end-effector;inaccurate parameter estimation;local frame;observation likelihood;oriented visual features;reprojection error;Calibration;Cameras;Robot kinematics;Robot vision systems;Three-dimensional displays}, doi={10.1109/IROS.2017.8206478}, ISSN={}, month={Sept},}


R. Andre, U. Thomas
Error robust efficient assembly sequence planning with haptic rendering models for rigid and non-rigid assemblies
in proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Singapore, May 29 - June 3, 2017
DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2017.8262698

This paper presents a new approach for error robust assembly sequence planning which uses haptic ren- dering models (HRMs) for the representation of assemblies. Our assembly planning system uses HRMs for collision test along mating vectors, which are generated by stereographic projection. The planner stores the vectors in 2 2 1 D distance maps providing fast and efficient access for the later evaluation while AND/OR-graphs contain possible sequences. Haptic rendering models facilitate the processing compared to faulty triangle meshes providing fast and geometry independent collision tests as colliding parts can easily be identified and handled accordingly. In addition, part and material related properties can be annotated. We present a fast and simple approach handling approximation inconsistencies, which occur due to discretization errors, based only on the properties of the haptic rendering models. The paper concludes with feasible results for various assemblies and detailed calculation times underlining the effectiveness of our approach.

@INPROCEEDINGS{8262698, author={R. Andre and U. Thomas}, booktitle={2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)}, title={Error robust and efficient assembly sequence planning with haptic rendering models for rigid and non-rigid assemblies}, year={2017}, volume={}, number={}, pages={1-7}, keywords={assembly planning;computational geometry;graph theory;haptic interfaces;mesh generation;production engineering computing;rendering (computer graphics);2 1/2D distance maps;HRMs;approximation inconsistencies;discretization errors;error robust assembly sequence planning;fast geometry independent collision tests;haptic rendering models;material related properties;nonrigid assemblies;rigid assemblies;Haptic interfaces;Planning;Rendering (computer graphics);Robots;Robustness;Solid modeling;Three-dimensional displays}, doi={10.1109/ICRA.2017.8262698}, ISSN={}, month={May},}


2016

F. Müller, J. Jäkel, U. Thomas, J. Suchý
Intuitive Handführung von Robotern als Handlingsysteme
Automatisierungstechnik, Vol. 64 Nr. 10, Oktober 2016
DOI: 10.1515/auto-2016-0057

In hand-guided robot-based handling systems the user controls the movement by a force/moment sensor. Exact movement control of up to six degrees of freedom demands much experience. The article describes an approach which improves the usability by means of virtual force fields. To derive rules for the parametrization of the force fields we analyse the stability of the impedance controlled robot and additionally use simulation and experiments.

@article{MuellerJaekel2016a, author={M{\"u}ller, F. and J{\"a}kel, J. and Thomas, U. and Such{\'y}, J.}, year = {2016}, title = {{Intuitive Handf{\"u}hrung von Robotern als Handlingsysteme}}, journal={at - Automatisierungstechnik}, volume={64}, number={10}, month={Oktober}, pages={806 -- 815} }


F. Müller, N. M. Fischer, J. Jäkel, U. Thomas, J. Suchý
User study for hand-guided robots with assisting force fields
1st IFAC Conference on Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems, Vol. 49 Nr. 32, Florianopolis, Brazil, Dezember 2016
DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.12.222

In this paper we present an approach for improving the hand-guiding of robotic arms which is called assisting force field (AFF). The AFF guides the user to certain reference paths enabling the user to keep the desired position and orientation of the end effector. The reference paths are computed using learning data of experienced users. The AFF is realized by an impedance control of the robot. The main focus of this paper is to investigate how the AFF improves the handling of the robot. For this a user study has been performed with 42 participants. The experiments were complemented by questionnaires regarding user comfort and task workload. The results of the study show an obvious improvement on the performance and the ergonomic quantities applying the AFF.

@INPROCEEDINGS{MuellerJaekel2016b, author={M{\"u}ller, F. and Fischer, N. M. and J{\"a}kel, J. and Thomas, U. and Such{\'y}, J.}, booktitle={1st Conference on Cyber-Physical \& Human-Systems (CPHS) }, title={User study for hand-guided robots with assisting force fields}, pages={246 -- 251}, year={2016}, volume={49}, number={32}, month={Dezember} }


C. Nissler, Z. Marton, U. Thomas
Evaluation and Improvement of Global Pose Estimation with Multiple AprilTags for Industrial Manipulators
ETFA 2016 - IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology & Factory Automation Berlin, Germany, September 6 - 9, 2016
DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2016.7733711

Given the advancing importance for light-weight production materials an increase in automation is crucial. This paper presents a prototypical setup to obtain a precise pose estimation for an industrial manipulator in a realistic production environment. We show the achievable precision using only a standard fiducial marker system (AprilTag) and a state-of-the art camera attached to the robot. The results obtained in a typical working space of a robot cell of about 4.5m × 4.5m are in the range of 15mm to 35mm compared to ground truth provided by a laser tracker. We then show several methods of reducing this error by applying state-of-the-art optimization techniques, which reduce the error significantly to less than 10mm compared to the laser tracker ground truth data and at the same time remove e×isting outliers.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7733711, author={C. Nissler and S. B×üttner and Z. C. Marton and L. Beckmann and U. Thomasy}, booktitle={2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA)}, title={Evaluation and improvement of global pose estimation with multiple AprilTags for industrial manipulators}, year={2016}, pages={1-8}, keywords={industrial manipulators;pose estimation;production engineering computing;production materials;robot vision;error reduction;global pose estimation;ground truth;industrial manipulators;laser tracker;light-weight production materials;multiple AprilTags;optimization;production environment;robot cell working space;standard fiducial marker system;Cameras;End effectors;Lasers;Pose estimation;Robot vision systems;Service robots}, doi={10.1109/ETFA.2016.7733711}, month={Sept},}


R. Andre, M. Jokesch, U. Thomas
Reliable Robot Assembly Using Haptic Rendering Models in Combination with Particle Filters
IEEE 12th Conference on Automation, Science and Engineering (CASE), Fort Worth, Texas, USA, August 2016
DOI: 10.1109/COASE.2016.7743532

In this paper we propose a method for reliable and error tolerant assembly for impedance controlled robots by using a particle filter based approach. Our method applies a haptic rendering model obtained from CAD data only, with which we are able to evaluate relative objects poses implemented as particles. The real world force torque sensor values are compared to the model based haptic rendering information to correct pose uncertainties during assembly. We make use of the KUKA LBR iiwa’s intrinsic sensors to measure the position and joint torques representing the real world state. The particle filter is required to compensate pose errors which exceed the assembly clearance during assembly. We show the usefulness of our approach by simulation and real world peg- in-hole tasks.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7743532, author={R. Andre and M. Jokesch and U. Thomas}, booktitle={2016 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)}, title={Reliable robot assembly using haptic rendering models in combination with particle filters}, year={2016}, pages={1134-1139}, keywords={CAD;force measurement;force sensors;haptic interfaces;particle filtering (numerical methods);pose estimation;rendering (computer graphics);robotic assembly;torque measurement;CAD data;KUKA LBR iiwa intrinsic sensors;assembly clearance;error tolerant assembly;force torque sensor values;haptic rendering models;impedance controlled robots;joint torque measurement;object pose evaluation;particle filters;peg-in-hole tasks;pose error compensation;pose uncertainties;position measurement;reliable robot assembly;Force;Haptic interfaces;Robot sensing systems;Solid modeling;Surface treatment;Torque}, doi={10.1109/COASE.2016.7743532}, month={Aug},}


K. Nottensteiner, T. Bodenmüller, M. Kasseker, M. Roa, D. Seidel, A. Stemmer, U. Thomas
A Complete Automated Chain For Flexible Assembly using Recognition, Planning and Sensor-Based Execution
DOI: xxx
Proceedings of 47th International Symposium on Robotics, Munich, June 2016

This paper presents a fully automated system for automatic assembly of aluminum profile constructions. This high grade of automation of the entire process chain requires novel strategies in recognition, planning and execution. The system includes an assembly sequence planner integrated with a grasp planning tool, a knowledge-based reasoning method, a skill-based code generation, and an error tolerant execution engine. The modular structure of the system allows its adaptation to new products, which can prove especially useful for SMEs producing small lot sizes. The system is robust and stable, as demonstrated with the repeated execution of different geometric assemblies.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7559140, author={K. Nottensteiner and T. Bodenmueller and M. Kassecker and M. A. Roa and A. Stemmer and T. Stouraitis and D. Seidel and U. Thomas}, booktitle={Proceedings of ISR 2016: 47st International Symposium on Robotics}, title={A Complete Automated Chain for Flexible Assembly using Recognition, Planning and Sensor-Based Execution}, year={2016}, pages={1-8}, month={June},}


R. Andre, U. Thomas
Anytime Optimal Assembly Sequence Planning
Proceedings of 47th International Symposium on Robotics, Munich, June 2016
DOI: xxx

This paper describes an anytime optimization approach for assembly sequence planning. The well-known AND/OR- graph is applied to represent feasible assembly sequences. An optimal sequence is searched on the basis of this graph. Depending on multiple cost functions for each assembly step the first found plan might not be cost-optimal. Therefore the anytime approach allows finding the global cost-optimal sequence if the complete graph can be continuously parsed. In addition the returned solution can be re-evaluated at a later time allowing further optimizations in the case of changing production environments. The approach has been evaluated with different CAD-models each with varying graph sizes and assembly step costs.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7559139, author={R. Andre and U. Thomas}, booktitle={Proceedings of ISR 2016: 47st International Symposium on Robotics}, title={Anytime Assembly Sequence Planning}, year={2016}, pages={1-8}, month={June},}


A. Kolker, M. Jokesch, U. Thomas
An Optical Tactile Sensor for Measuring Force Values and Directions for Several Soft and Rigid Contacts
Proceeding of 47th International Symposium on Robotics, Munich, June 2016
DOI: xxx

The implementation of robots to manipulate with soft or fragile objects requires usage of high sensible tactile sensors. For many applications, beside the force magnitude, the direction is also important. This paper extends already available ideas and implementations of 3D-tactile sensors. Our sensor can detect a wide range of forces, the direction of forces and shifting forces along the sensor surface for several contact points simultaneously. The amount of capabilities in a single sensor is unique. The underlying concept is a pressure-to-light system. A camera provides images of a structure, which generates geometric shapes on the images according to external acting forces. The shapes are well convenient for image processing and give the ability to use them as reference for the forces. After describing our approach very detailed we show experiments for evaluation, e.g. applying it to grab objects carefully. Finally the future work is discussed, where we plan to bring the sensor to anthropomorphic robot hands.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7559098, author={A. Kolker and M. Jokesch and U. Thomas}, booktitle={Proceedings of ISR 2016: 47st International Symposium on Robotics}, title={An Optical Tactile Sensor for Measuring Force Values and Directions for Several Soft and Rigid Contacts}, year={2016}, pages={1-6}, month={June},}


2015

M. Jokesch, J. Suchý, A. Winkleross, U. Thomas
Generic Algorithm for Peg-In-Hole Assembly Tasks for Pin-Alignments with Impedance Controlled Robots
ROBOT2015 - Second Iberian Conference on Robotics, Special Session on Future Industrial Robotic Systems, Lissabon, Portugal, 2015
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-27149-1_9

In this paper, a generic algorithm for peg-in-hole assembly tasks is suggested. It is applied in the project GINKO were the aim is to connect electric vehicles with charging stations automatically. This paper explains an algorithm applicable for peg-in-hole tasks by means of Cartesian impedance controlled robots. The plugging task is a specialized peg-in-hole task for which 7 pins have to be aligned simultaneously and the peg and the hole have asymmetric shapes. In addition significant forces are required for complete insertion. The initial position is inaccurately estimated by a vision system. Hence, there are translational and rotational uncertainties between the plug, carried by the robot and the socket, situated on the E-car. To compensate these errors three different steps of Cartesian impedance control are performed. To verify our approach we evaluated the algorithm from many different start positions.

@Inbook{Jokesch2016, author="Jokesch, Michael and Such{\'y}, Jozef and Winkler, Alexander and Fross, Andr{\'e} and Thomas, Ulrike", editor="Reis, Lu{\'i}s Paulo and Moreira, Ant{\'o}nio Paulo and Lima, Pedro U. and Montano, Luis and Mu{\~{n}}oz-Martinez, Victor", title="Generic Algorithm for Peg-In-Hole Assembly Tasks for Pin Alignments with Impedance Controlled Robots ", bookTitle="Robot 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference: Advances in Robotics, Volume 2", year="2016", publisher="Springer International Publishing", address="Cham", pages="105--117", isbn="978-3-319-27149-1", doi="10.1007/978-3-319-27149-1_9", url="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27149-1_9" }


A. Butting, B. Rumpe, C. Schulze, U. Thomas, A. Wortmann
Modeling Reusable Plattform Independent Robot Assembly Processes
Workshop Modeling in Robotics, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Workshop on Domain Specific Languages for Robotics, Hamburg, 2015
DOI: arXiv:1601.02452

Smart factories that allow flexible production of highly individualized goods require flexible robots, usable in efficient assembly lines. Compliant robots can work safely in shared environments with domain experts, who have to program such robots easily for arbitrary tasks. We propose a new domain-specific language and toolchain for robot assembly tasks for compliant manipulators. With the LightRocks toolchain, assembly tasks are modeled on different levels of abstraction, allowing a separation of concerns between domain experts and robotics experts: externally provided, platform-independent assembly plans are instantiated by the domain experts using models of processes and tasks. Tasks are comprised of skills, which combine platform-specific action models provided by robotics experts. Thereby it supports a flexible production and re-use of modeling artifacts for various assembly processes.

@ARTICLE {, author = "Arvid Butting, Bernhard Rumpe, Christoph Schulze, Ulrike Thomas, Andreas Wortmann", title = "Modeling Reusable, Platform-Independent Robot Assembly Processes", journal = "Presented at DSLRob 2015, accepted for IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Workshop on Domain Specific Languages for Robotics, Hamburg", year = "2015" }


U. Thomas, T. Stouraitis, M. A. Roa
Flexible Assembly through Integrated Assembly Sequence Planning and Grasp Planning
in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, Gothenburgh, Sweden, 2015
DOI: 10.1109/CoASE.2015.7294142

This paper describes an assembly sequence planner able to generate feasible sequences for building a desired assembly. The assembly planner takes geometrical, physical and mechanical constraints into account. Moreover, the planner considers the feasibility of grasps during the planning process and takes into account work-cell specific constraints. The approach uses AND/OR-graphs for planning. The generation of such graphs is implemented by using a specialized graph cut algorithm that employs a dynamically changing priority queue. These graphs are further evaluated by considering the feasibility of grasping sub-assemblies and individual parts during the process. The grasp and the sequence planner are generic, hence the proposed solution can be applied to arbitrary assemblies of rigid parts. The system has been evaluated with different configurations obtained by the combination of standard item-profiles.

@INPROCEEDINGS{7294142, author={U. Thomas and T. Stouraitis and M. A. Roa}, booktitle={2015 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)}, title={Flexible assembly through integrated assembly sequence planning and grasp planning}, year={2015}, pages={586-592}, keywords={assembly planning;computer aided production planning;graph colouring;shear modulus;AND-graphs;OR-graphs;arbitrary assemblies;assembly sequence planner;dynamically changing priority queue;geometrical constraints;graph generation;grasp planning;mechanical constraints;physical constraints;planning process;rigid parts;specialized graph cut algorithm;work-cell specific constraints;Assembly;Databases;Fasteners;Force;Grasping;Planning;Robots}, doi={10.1109/CoASE.2015.7294142}, ISSN={2161-8070}, month={Aug},}


K. Nilsson, B. Rumpe, U. Thomas, A. Wortmann
1st Workshop on Model-Driven Knowledge Engineering for Improved Software Modularity in Robotics and Automation
MDKE 2015, European Robotics Forum 2015

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@ARTICLE {, author = "Klas Nilsson Bernhard Rumpe Ulrike Thomas Andreas Wortmann", title = "1st Workshop on Model-Driven Knowledge Engineering for Improved Software Modularity in Robotics and Automation (MDKE)", journal = "RWTH Aachen, European Robotics Forum, Vienna (Austria)", year = "13.03.2015", volume = "vol. RWTH-2015-01968", pages = "1-20" }


2014 und früher


2014
M. Jokesch, M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Integration of vision/force robot control for transporting different shaped/colored objects from moving circular conveyor, 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE) Proceedings, Timisoara, Romania, ISBN 978-1-4799-4926-7
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Force Controlled Contour Following by an Industrial Robot on Unknown Objects with Tool Orientation Control, Proceedings of 8th ISR/Robotik 2014, Munich, Germany, ISBN 978-3-8007-3601-0
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Integration of Vision/Force Robot Control Using Automatic Decision System for Performing Different Successive Tasks, Proceedings of 8th ISR/Robotik 2014, Munich, Germany, ISBN 978-3-8007-3601-0
M. Bdiwi, A. Kolker und J. Suchý
  Transferring Model-Free Objects between Human Hand ans Robot Hand Using Vision/Force Control, . IEEE 11th Int. Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Castelldefels, Spain, DOI 10.1109/SSD.2014.6808785

2013
M. Bdiwi, A. Kolker, J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Segmentation of Model-Free Objects Carried by Human Hand: Intended for Human-Robot Interaction Applications, 16th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2013, ISBN 978-9974-8194-8-1.
M. Bdiwi, A. Kolker, J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Automated Assistance Robot System for Transferring Model-Free Objects From/To Human Hand Using Vision/Force Control, In: Guido Herrmann, Martin J. Pearson, Alexander Lenz, Paul Bremner, Adam Spiers und Ute Leonards (Hrsg.) Social Robotics (5th International Conference, ICSR 2013, Bristol, UK, October 2013, Proceedings), Seiten 40-53, Springer, 2013, ISBN 978-3-319-02674-9.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Force Controlled Contour Following on Unknown Objects with an Industrial Robot, IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments, Washington DC, USA, 2013, Seiten 208-213, ISBN 978-1-4673-2938-5.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Identification and Controller Design for the Inverted Pendulum Actuated by a Position Controlled Robot, 18th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, Miedzyzdroje, Polen, 2013, Seiten 258-263, ISBN 978-1-4673-5507-0.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Robot Force/Torque Control in Assembly Tasks, IFAC Conference on Manufactoring Modelling, Management and Control, Sankt Petersburg, Russland, 2013, Seiten 826-831.
M. Bdiwi, A. Kolker, J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Real Time Visual and Force Servoing of Human Hand for Physical Human-Robot Interaction: Handing-over Unknown Objects, Workshop on Human Robot Interaction for Assistance and Industrial Robots in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Karlsruhe, 2013.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Storage/Retrieval of Inaccurately Placed Objects Using Robot System and Vision/Force Feedback, Transactions on Systems, Signals & Devices, TSSD-A, Vol.8, No.1, Seiten 1-25, 2013.
M. Bdiwi, J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Handing-over Model-Free Objects to Human Hand with the Help of Vision/Force Robot Control, 10th IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Hammamet, Tunesien, 2013.
A. Kolker, A. Winkler, M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Robot Visual Servoing Using the Example of the Inverted Pendulum, 10th IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Hammamet, Tunesien, 2013.
A. Kolker, A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Stabilization of the Robot Mounted Inverted Pendulum by Vision Control, In: Lucia Pachnikova und Mikulas Hajduk (Hrsg.) Robotics in Theory and Practice, Seiten 7-17, Trans Tech Publications, 2013, ISSN 1660-9336.
H. Koch, A. König, A. Weigl-Seitz, K. Kleinmann und J. Suchý
  Multisensor Contour Following With Vision, Force, and Acceleration Sensors for an Industrial Robot, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 62, No. 2, Seiten 268-280, 2013.

2012
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Position Feedback in Force Control of Industrial Manipulators - An Experimental Comparison with Basic Algorithms, IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments, Magdeburg, 2012, Seiten 31-36, ISBN 978-1-4673-2704-6.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Library Automation Using Different Structures of Vision-Force Robot Control and Automatic Decision System, IEEE/RSJ Internation Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012.
L. Böhme und J. Suchý
  Development of the Fragmented-Motion-Segment Concept for Flexible Joint Robots to Raise Energy Efficiency in Handling Tasks , 10th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, Dubrovnik, Kroatien, 2012, Seiten 575-582.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Dynamic Collision Avoidance of Industrial Cooperating Robots Using Virtual Force Fields, 10th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, Dubrovnik, Kroatien, 2012, Seiten 265-270.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Automatic Decision System for the Structure of Vision-Force Robotic Control, 10th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, Dubrovnik, Kroatien, 2012, Seiten 172-177.
H. Koch, A. König, K. Kleinmann, A. Weigl-Seitz und J. Suchý
  Filtering and Corner Detection in Predictive Robotic Contour Following, 7th German Conference on Robotics (Robotik 2012), München, 2012, Seiten 502-507, VDI Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8007-3418-4.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Robot Programming for Surface Finishing based on CAD Model Including External Axes, 7th German Conference on Robotics (Robotik 2012), München, 2012, Seiten 422-427, VDI Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8007-3418-4.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Integrated Vision/Force Robot System for Shelving and Retrieving of Imprecisely Placed Objects, 7th German Conference on Robotics (Robotik 2012), München, 2012, Seiten 30-35, VDI Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8007-3418-4.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Robot Control System with Integrated Vision/Force Feedback for Automated Sorting System, IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications (TePRA), Woburn, MA, USA, 2012.
M. Bdiwi und J. Suchý
  Storage/retrieval of inaccurately placed objects using robot system and vision/force feedback, 9th IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Chemnitz, 2012.
H. Koch und J. Suchý
  Multisensor-Konturverfolgung an nachgiebigen Objekten, 46. Regelungstechnisches Kolloqium in Boppard, Vortrag, 2012.

2011
H. Koch, A. König, K. Kleinmann, A. Weigl-Seitz und J. Suchý
  Multisensor robotic contour following on deformable objects, IASTED International Conference on Robotics (Robo 2011), Pittsburgh, USA, Seiten 150-156, 2011.
M .Bdiwi, J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Kombinierte Kraftregelung und Visual Servoing eines Roboters mit einem offenen Steuerungssystem, Scientific Reports, IWKM Moderne Automatisierungstechnik/Robotik, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2011, ISSN 1437-7624.
L. Böhme
  Die vorteilhafte Nutzung einer anpassbaren Nachgiebigkeit in einem Robotergelenk, Scientific Reports, IWKM Moderne Automatisierungstechnik/Robotik, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2011, ISSN 1437-7624.
H. Koch, A. König, A. Weigl-Seitz, K. Kleinmann und J. Suchý
  Force, acceleration and vision sensor fusion for contour following tasks with an industrial robot, IEEE International Symposium on in Robotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE), Montreal, Kanada, Seiten 1-6, 2011.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Vision Based Collision Avoidance of Industrial Robots, 18th IFAC World Congress, Mailand, Italien, Seiten 9452-9457, 2011.
H. Koch, A. König, K. Kleinmann, A. Weigl-Seitz und J. Suchý
  Predictive robotic contour following using laser-camera-triangulation, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Budapest, Ungarn, Seiten 422-427, 2011.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Virtuelle Kraftfelder zwischen Roboterarmen zur Kollisionsvermeidung, VDI-Berichte 2143 (Automation 2011), Seiten 249-252, 2011, ISBN 978-3-18-092143-3.
M. Bdiwi, A. Winkler, J. Suchý und G. Zschocke
  Traded and shared vision-force robot control for improved impact control, 8th IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Sousse, Tunesien, 2011.

2010
A. Winkler, L. Böhme und J. Suchý
  Cooperation of Robots Under Force/ Torque Control, 55. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium, Seiten 414-419, Ilmenau, 2010, ISBN 978-3-938843-53-6.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Einsatz eines 12D-Kraft-/ Momentsensors an einem Industrieroboter, Scientific Reports Nr. 6, IWKM Industrielle Steuerungen/Robotik, Seiten 48-51, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2008, ISSN 1437-7624.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Sensor Guided Robot Motions Using the Example of the Inverted Pendulum, Joint Conference on Robotics - 41th International Symposium on Robotics and 6th German Conference on Robotics, Seiten 69-75, München, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8007-3273-9.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Kollisionsvermeidung bei stationären Robotern mit Hilfe künstlicher Kraftfelder, 44. Regelungstechnisches Kolloqium in Boppard, Vortrag, 2010.

2009
J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion mit Hilfe von Kraft-/ Momentsensoren, Innovationsforum: Anwendung der Haptik in der robotergestützten Chirurgie, Magdeburg, Vortrag, 2009.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Erecting and Balancing of the Inverted Pendulum by an Industrial Robot, 9th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, Gifu, Japan, 2009.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Intuitive Collision Avoidance of Robots Using Charge Generated Virtual Force Fields, In: Torsten Kröger und Friedrich M. Wahl (Hrsg.) Advances in Robotics Research, Seiten 77-87, Springer, 2009, ISBN 978-3-642-01212-9.

2008
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Einsatz eines 12D-Kraft-/ Momentsensors an einem Industrieroboter, Scientific Reports Nr. 6, IWKM Industrielle Steuerungen/Robotik, Seiten 48-51, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2008, ISSN 1437-7624.
A. Winkler
  Kraftbasierte Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion, VDM-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-639-07286-0.
J. Suchý und A. Winkler
  Beispiele zum Einsatz von Kraft-/ Momentsensorik an Industrierobotern, 4. IPA-Workshop Bearbeiten mit Industrierobotern / Technologien-Anwendungen-Trends, Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung IPA Stuttgart, Vortrag, 2008.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Lastidentifikation und Messung dynamischer Kräfte und Momente mit einem 12D-Kraft-/ Momentsensor, In: VDI Berichte 2012 (Robotik 2008), Seiten 33-36, VDI Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-18-092012-2.

2007
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Dynamic Force/Torque Measurement Using a 12DOF Sensor, 20th IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Diego, CA, USA, Seiten 1870-1875, 2007.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Possibilities of force based interaction with robot manipulators, In: Nilanjan Sarkar (Hrsg.) Human-Robot-Interaction, I-Tech Education and Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-3-902613-13-4.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Position Based Force Control of an Industrial Manipulator, 52. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium, Seiten 151-156, Ilmenau, 2007, ISBN 978-3-939473-17-6.

2006
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Force-guided motions of a 6-d.o.f industrial robot with a joint space approach, Advanced Robotics, Vol. 20, Nr. 9, Seiten 1067-1084, 2006. Link
A. Winkler
  Ein Beitrag zur kraftbasierten Mensch-Roboter-Interaktion. Dissertation, Technische Universit�t Chemnitz, 2006. Link
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  An Approach to Compliant Motion of an Industrial Manipulator, 8th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, Bologna, Italien, 2006.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Sensorless Force Guided Motions of an Industrial Robot Based on Motor Currents, Joint Conference on Robotics - 37th International Symposium on Robotics and 4th German Conference on Robotics, München, 2006, ISBN 3-18-091956-6.

2005
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Ausgewählte Anwendungen zum Einsatz von Kraft-/ Momentregelung an Industrierobotern, Scientific Reports Nr. 11, IWKM Robotik, Seiten 1-4, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2005, ISSN 1437-7624.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Novel Joint Space Force Guidance Algorithm with Laboratory Robot System, 16th IFAC World Congress, Prag, Tschechische Republik, 2005.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Kraftgeführte Bewegungen mit einem STÄUBLI-Industrieroboter, AT\&P journal PLUS6, Seiten 94-98, 2005, ISSN 1336-5010.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Kraftgeführte Bewegung stationärer Roboter durch Steuerung im Gelenkraum, 39. Regelungstechnisches Kolloqium in Boppard, Vortrag, 2005.

2004
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
      Kraft-/ Momentregelung von Industrierobotern, Scientific Reports Nr. 4, 1. Workshop Robotik, Seiten 22-30, Hochschule Mittweida (FH), 2004, ISBN 3-18-091841-1.
A. Winkler und J. Suchý
  Kraftgeführte Bewegungen mit einem Standardindustrieroboter, In: VDI Berichte 1841 (Robotik 2004), Seiten 527-534, VDI Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-18-091841-1.

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